Frequently Asked Questions for MailMan version 2.0
Last-modified: Thursday, July 23, 1998
Ryan Alyn Porter <email@example.com>
Subject: 1.1) Introduction and Intent
This document is an attempt to answer some of the more frequently asked questions concerning MailMan, a web-based email interface from Endymion Corporation. An HTML copy of this document is stored online at <URL:http://www.endymion.com/products/mailman/faq.htm>. This document is not intended to act as marketing materials for MailMan or for Endymion, this document is intended to assist us in providing fast and efficient technical support for MailMan users, 24 hours a day. I have attempted to address all levels of reader, from those only barely familiar with Internet-related software to those with the task of actually implementing and maintaining MailMan installations. Readers of this document are the real judge of how successfully I have managed to pull that trick off though. Let me know if you have any serious issues with the information contained here. I have also tried to use simple and straightforward English, since our users come from all over the world. If I have used any idioms that are difficult to understand in your particular region, please let me know so that I might make this document more universally comprehensible.
Subject: 2.1) Table of Contents
1.1)Introduction and Intent
2.1)Table of Contents
3.9)Can I customize the interface of MailMan?
Subject: 3.1) Overview
This section provides an overview of the basic top-level questions about what MailMan is and what it does.
Subject: 3.2) What is MailMan?
MailMan is a system that provides any user with an interface to his or her own email account from any web browser anywhere in the world. MailMan is a piece of software that runs on a web server as a part of an existing web site that interacts with a mail server and displays the results through the web server.
Subject: 3.3) What could I use MailMan for?
A MailMan installation could support a free email advertisement site. A different installation of MailMan could provide essential email access for the students at a small community college or the students at a large university. A different installation of MailMan could allow the users of a neighborhood ISP to access their local email accounts through the web without configuring a mail reader. A different installation of MailMan could provide access to any email address anywhere in the world for the patrons of a cyber café. Another installation might allow business workers to stay in touch while away from their desks, even while at a pay kiosk in an airport or at a borrowed workstation at another corporation. Another installation might allow a family to keep in touch with friends through Grandma’s WebTV box while visiting for Christmas. There are other uses for MailMan that we have not even thought of yet. If you think of others, please let us know.
Subject 3.4) Could MailMan be used for kiosk applications?
We designed MailMan with applications such as standalone kiosks in mind. The only caveat that we would mention is that when you design an interactive kiosk, privacy issues become a big concern. You do not want a user to be able to walk up to a kiosk and see the mail that a previous user was reading. To this end, please be very careful in the selection of an appropriate web browser for kiosk applications. Specifically, please note that the Microsoft Internet Explorer (all known versions 1.0 through 4.01, as of this writing) does not conform to accepted Internet standards for the expiration of web pages from page caches (the "Expires:" HTTP response header, see RFC 1945 for more details on this directive). The Microsoft Internet Explorer also does not conform to accepted Internet standards for directing a browser to not cache web pages in the first place (the "Cache-control:" response header, see RFC 2068 for more details on this directive). Because of these non-conformance issues, Endymion strongly recommends against using any version of the Microsoft Internet Explorer for kiosk applications involving MailMan. Netscape Navigator, Opera, and many other popular web browsers properly conform to Internet communications protocol standards and are very well suited for kiosk applications.
Subject: 3.5) How is MailMan different from HotMail, YahooMail, ExciteMail, etc?
Free Internet mail services such as the ones mentioned above provide the same basic services that MailMan does, but they provide them through a proprietary web site, generally with the purpose of selling advertisements to a guaranteed repeat audience. Free email sites provide the user with a mailbox and the server to access the mailbox. MailMan is different because it is simply a piece of software, a technology to be applied in any number of ways. MailMan works in conjunction with other mail servers in order to process incoming and outgoing mail, communicating with those servers though well-accepted Internet standards such as the POP3 and STMP protocols. The primary advantage of MailMan is that administrators can control their own MailMan installations. They have the power to specify what mail servers MailMan connects to, what MailMan looks like when it runs, who has access to MailMan, etc. When you use MailMan, you are accessing the same email account that you normally access, not a new account that was created just for you to access through a free email service. Some free email services allow you to access your own email address through the service, but you are still forced into using someone else’s web server and you are forced into watching someone else’s advertisements. With MailMan you have much more control.
Subject: 3.6) Where would I find current information on MailMan?
The ‘official’ MailMan information site is at the Endymion Corporation web site, at <URL:http://www.endymion.com/products/mailman>.
Subject: 3.7) What’s the short version of how MailMan works from a technical standpoint?
The heart of MailMan is a CGI application written in Perl, version 5. The mail application generates MailMan’s user interface dynamically by reading template files filled with HTML code, processing them, and producing output for the user through a web server. To obtain useful email information, MailMan obtains a user’s email account authentication information directly from the user (a username, password and server name) and communicates with the user’s POP3 email server the way that any client-side mail software ordinarily would. The user sees a list of messages and can select messages for viewing, deletion, and other normal mail tasks. If a user wishes to reply to a message, forward a message, or create a new message, MailMan communicates with an SMTP mail server to send the outgoing message the way that any ordinary client-side software would.
Subject: 3.8) What are some of MailMan's more notable features?
The current version of MailMan supports a frames-based interface that provides the user with a message list in a top frame and individual messages in the bottom frame. This feature makes browsing your mail through a web interface very simple and stress-free and eliminates some of the lag issues that are normally associated with web-based email. No other web-based email system that we know of supports this type of sophisticated interface.
MailMan can receive message attachments through any web browser. Message attachments can be MIME encoded using either Base64 or Quoted-Printable encoding, or they can be simple Uuencoded binaries. If you are using a browser that supports file uploading (Netscape 2.0 and above and Microsoft's Internet Explorer 4.0 and above, as of this writing) then you can also send message attachments.
Subject: 3.9) Can I customize the interface of MailMan?
One of the primary benefits of MailMan is that the entire interface that is presented to the user is the result of a collection of template files that contain ordinary HTML. These templates can be modified to incorporate specific branding of any web site as long as they still contain certain vital keywords that allow MailMan to insert valuable information.
Subject: 3.10) What is the difference between the Standard and the Professional editions of MailMan?
The standard edition of MailMan is more of a 'viewer' for a POP3 server than a complete mailer. It does not store any user information on the server side. It does not store messages anywhere, so the only messages that you see are the messages that are actually on the POP3 server at that time. The professional edition stores messages on the server side after they have been fetched from the POP3 server, allowing you to organize them into a folder hierarchy like you might in Eudora or whatever mail program you ordinarily use. The professional edition also stores user settings on the server side, allowing users to configure options such as a default SMTP server or a signature message to append to outgoing messages. The standard edition is a version that we intend for use by users as a secondary mail system that will compliment an existing client-side mail package, the professional edition is intended for use by novice users as a primary mailer. Experienced users will probably not be happy with any version of MailMan as a primary mailer, just like they would not use HotMail or ExciteMail for a primary mailer.
Another difference, on a more practical level, is that the professional edition is not yet complete, and won't even go beta for at least two or three weeks. (This was written on Monday, July 20, 1998, at the official release of MailMan 2.0 Standard)
Subject: 3.11) What are the basic requirements for setting up a MailMan installation?
In order to make use of MailMan you must have a functioning web server that has the ability to run Perl CGI applications. To read incoming mail you must have access to a functioning POP3 mail server and to send outgoing messages you must have access to a functioning STMP mail server. These are all very common Internet standards and you probably have access to the necessary mail servers if you have an Internet email account.
Subject: 3.12) What standards and protocols does MailMan comply with?
MailMan uses CGI to communicate with the host web server. For more information about CGI, consult Nick Kew's CGI FAQ at <URL:http://www3.pair.com/webthing/docs/cgi/faqs/cgifaq.shtml>.
For the generation of HTTP headers, MailMan conforms as closely as possible with the proposed standard RFC 2068, "Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1", as well as the earlier related specifications such as RFC 1945, "Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.0."
MailMan's user interface is generated using messages that comply as closely as possible with RFC 1866, "HyperText Markup Language Specification - 2.0" and related specifications.
Persistent state information for the frames-based MailMan interface is maintained according to RFC 2109, "HTTP State Management Mechanism".
For communication with incoming internet email servers, MailMan conforms as closely as possible with RFC 1939, "Post Office Protocol - Version 3", and was originally based on the earlier specification, RFC 1725. MailMan is in strict compliance with end of line delimiters specified in the POP3 standards documents and should be compatible with POP3 servers regardless of the end of line delimiter used in the server's host operating system.
For communication with outgoing internet email servers, MailMan conforms as closely as possible with RFC 821, "Simple Mail Transfer Protocol". MailMan does not make use of enhancements provided by later approved extension standards such as RFC 1869 or RFC 1870.
The messages that MailMan processes and generates are compliant as closely as possible with RFC 822, "Standard for the format of ARPA Internet text messages". Formatted messages and messages with attachments are automatically handled by portions of MailMan that are compliant as closely as possible with the specifications in RFC 2045, RFC 2046, RFC 2047, RFC 2048 and RFC 2049, "Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME)", parts one through five.
All of the above referenced standards documents are available at <URL:http://www.ietf.org>.
Subject: 4.1) Licensing
This section describes the licensing structure of MailMan.
Subject: 4.2) Is MailMan free?
No, MailMan is not free. An employee of Endymion Corporation originally started MailMan as a spare time project in 1996. The first version of MailMan was released through the Endymion Corporation web site in 1997 under the GNU Public License, in the hope that people would find the software valuable and contribute to its development. In the time since then, many people have downloaded MailMan and used the application and some have even contributed suggestions and bug fixes, but nobody has undertaken further development. Since MailMan has survived the test of time, Endymion Corporation has decided to pronounce MailMan an official, supported product. We have invested the time and resources in developing MailMan version 2.0, a vast improvement over the original freeware incarnation of MailMan, and we are offering it for license.
Now for the exceptions. Endymion Corporation automatically grants a license for free to installations of MailMan that meet one of the following criteria:
All installations of MailMan that do not clearly fit into one of the three clearly-defined categories above must be licensed. So that there is no confusion, installations of MailMan that must be licensed include, but are not limited to, the following examples:
One license must be purchased for each installation of MailMan, but each installation can host an unlimited number of users, unlike MailMan’s primary competition. For current information on MailMan licensing policies, please see <URL:http://www.endymion.com/products/mailman/licensing.htm>. For a copy of the actual non-commercial installation license agreement that accompanies MailMan, see <URL:http://www.endymion.com/products/mailman/mmnclic.htm>.
Subject: 4.3) Why is the MailMan source code no longer open?
MailMan began life as a GPL product. Because of our desire to help to move the world forward just a little bit at a time by sharing our efforts with others and because of a general sense of honesty and openness, we originally made the source code for MailMan available to the world under the same non-commercial license that allowed you to install and use MailMan. Unfortunately, we were almost immediately (less than a week after the release) bitten by pirates. Apparently there are people out there that are unable or too lazy to develop something like MailMan by themselves, so they just removed the "Endymion Corporation" headers from the source code and started trying to sell MailMan as their own product. Because of these pirates and other abuses we are making the true MailMan source code available only to licensees. This does not preclude non-profit organizations from obtaining the MailMan source for modification. If you represent a verifiable non-profit organization and you are interested in obtaining the MailMan source code, just contact firstname.lastname@example.org for information about obtaining the source code through your non-commercial license. The final effect of our closing the source code is actually very small. Organizations that have a legitimate need for the source code for examination or modification need to license MailMan anyway, and we continue to make the source available to verifiable non-profits.
Subject: 4.4) What constitutes a single "installation" of MailMan?
A single installation of MailMan is defined as both a unique URL and server that is used to access the MailMan application. Most MailMan installations will require exactly one server and exactly one URL. For instance, Endymion Corporation maintains only one installation of MailMan, on a single server that handles our entire corporate web site, with a single URL, <URL:http://www.endymion.com/products/mailman/demo/mmstd.cgi>. If your MailMan installation will be supported by more than one server, all with the same URL, each server must be licensed. In a more likely scenario, if you operate several virtual domains from the same server and each virtual domain makes use of a MailMan installation, each different URL that MailMan is known by must be licensed. Having several different virtual domains all access a single installation of MailMan by the same URL on the same server technically only requires one license according to our definitions, but we are a small company and that’s not a very nice thing to do to us. Please consider doing the right thing and licensing each installation.
Subject: 4.5) Why are you picking on Scientology?
We’re not. Our intent is to provide MailMan for free to private individuals and to organizations that are acting selflessly and could use the applications but might not be able to budget for it. For-profit organizations foot the bill in our little Robin Hood game. We don’t think that this is too much to ask, since the bill that we’re talking about is miniscule. The Church of Scientology does not fit into our definition of ‘an organization that acts selflessly and might not be able to pay for a license’. We have nothing nasty to say about Scientology or the Church of Scientology other than that. To each his own.
Subject: 5.1) Installation
This section describes how to install MailMan.
Subject: 5.2) What is the difference between the different installation distributions?
There are two different distributions of each edition of MailMan version 2.0, a Unix distribution and an NT distribution. In reality either distribution should work on any server, but we have found it to be more convenient for our users to package the application in a way that is more targeted to the final platform. The primary difference between the two distributions is that the files in the NT distribution have been processed so that the lines in the mail MailMan source file end with a CRLF, while the lines in the same file in the Unix distribution are terminated with a simple LF. If you don’t know what that means, don’t worry about it, it’s really not that important usually. Another difference is that the main MailMan source file in the Unix distribution is called "mm<something>.cgi", while the same file in the NT distribution is called "mm<something>.pl". We have found that this arrangement reduces confusion in most cases. If you disagree about our file naming conventions you are perfectly welcome to rename the files to whatever you want.
Subject: 5.3) What is the basic installation procedure?
I have described the steps in this item in more detail in the OS-specific items below, this item provides an overview of the process.
That’s it, it looks too simple to believe, but that is the basic process. In most cases it will be that simple, and MailMan will run ‘out of the box’. Once you have performed the above three steps, merely access the application through the URL that you have given it. In the above example, the URL to access MailMan would likely be <URL:http://yourserver/mailman/mmstdo.cgi> or <URL:http://yourserver/mailman/mmstdo.pl>
Subject: 5.4) What is the installation procedure for a Unix system?
This item provides a more detailed explanation of the above procedure for Unix systems. Before you install MailMan, make sure that you have Perl 5 installed. On most Unix systems, especially web hosting systems, Perl will already be installed. If Perl is not installed, or if Perl version 5 is not installed, consult your system administrator.
Check your installation by loading "mmstdo.cgi" in your web browser through your web server. In the above example, the URL to access MailMan would likely be <URL:http://yourserver/mailman/mmstdo.cgi>.
Subject: 5.5) What is the installation procedure for an NT system?
This item provides a more detailed explanation of the above procedure for NT systems. Before you install MailMan on an NT system, make sure that you have Perl 5 installed. For more information on where to get Perl 5 and how to install and configure it for NT, please consult Evangelo Prodromou‘s Perl for Win32 FAQ at <URL:http://www.endcontsw.com/people/evangelo/Perl_for_Win32_FAQ.html>
Check your installation by loading "mmstdo.pl" in your web browser through your web server. In the above example, the URL to access MailMan would likely be <URL:http://yourserver/mailman/mmstdo.pl>.
NT systems seem to be very, very resistent to running Perl scripts without serious hassle, and NT administrators are generally unfamiliar with dealing with this sort of thing, so we have provided a few more tips for NT installations that we have developed over time:
On some NT systems, when you try to run MailMan you are presented with completely un-helpful error messages like 'The script misbehaved by producing no output' and things like that. We have worked out a simple process to get the system up and running that starts out by running the script alone, without going through CGI, then slowly builds up to running through CGI through the server:
1) To test that the script itself is working okay under simple conditions:
Switch to the directory that MailMan is installed in via the command line, DOS prompt, whatever you want to call it. Do 'C:', then 'cd inetpub\wwwroot\mailman', then do 'perl mmstd.pl', or 'c:\perl5\bin\perl mmstd.pl', or whatever. You should see a bunch of HTML code for the login page, if that works okay then your script is fine. Otherwise, that's where you have problems.
2) To test that the script has the path information set up correctly so that it will run even when IIS screws up the 'current directory' when it runs, do this:
Switch to some other directory, say the root of the C: drive. Run MailMan, something like 'perl inetpub\wwwroot\mmstd.pl'. If the path information is correctly set up, it should still be able to find the 'cgi-lib.pl' library and it should still be able to locate the template for the login page. Otherwise that's where you have problems.
3) Now try to get it working through CGI, if the above two tests work then we're not sure why this might break, but under NT anything is possible.
Subject: 5.6) I installed MailMan and it doesn’t work, what do I do?
Subject: 5.7) What does it mean when I try to run MailMan and the server says "Can’t locate cgi-lib.pl"?
The most likely cause of an error complaining about not being able to find "cgi-lib.pl" is that MailMan is ‘lost’. This happens when your server runs your CGI applications with a current directory other than the actual directory that the application is located in. If your MailMan installation is in "/public_html/mailman/mmstdo.cgi" for instance, your server might instantiate MailMan with "/public_html/mailman/mmstdo.cgi" as the current directory, in which case everybody is happy. It also might instantiate MailMan with "/usr/local/somedir/" as the current directory, in which case MailMan has no way of locating its own templates and dependencies. Luckily, there is a simple fix for this. At the top of the "mmstdo.cgi" file (or whatever your file happens to be called) there is a line that allows you to manually set the variable "$strLocalScriptLocation" to an absolute path that describes the location of your MailMan installation. In the above example you would set "$strLocalScriptLocation" to "/public_html/mailman/", letting MailMan know where it should look for dependencies and templates. Note that "$strLocalLocationScript" must be a complete directory name, with an absolute root and the terminating "/" or "\" character, depending on your operating system and file system. If you have problems with this, you will probably also have problems finding your templates once MailMan is running, so you should probably start out by setting "$strLocalTemplateLocation", which will automatically (by default) set "$strLocalScriptLocation" as well.
Subject: 6.1) Operation
This section describes how to work MailMan from a user’s point of view.
This section is still incomplete, sorry, check back after the MailMan public beta is over for a more current copy of this document with more useful information for this section.
Subject: 6.2) How would I use MailMan in conjunction with a 'primary' mailer on my home or office system?
We wish that there were other sources that we could reference that could explain the basics of using several different mailers at once. Unfortunately we don't know of any. If you know of any good write-ups with suggestions for novice users on this subject please let us know.
The key issue involved is configuring your mailer to leave its messages on the Internet mail server after it has downloaded them. If you receive a message from your boss on your computer at work and you decide that you would really rather go home and reply to the message after dinner, you can't do that if your mailer at work deletes the message from the server after it checks the message. If you set your mailer at work to not delete the message from the server, when you get home and check your mail, the message will still be there waiting for you to reply to it. Using MailMan in conjunction with other mailers is no different. All that you need to do is configure all of your mailers to leave messages on the mail server by default, and perhaps select one mailer as your 'official' mailer that is allowed to delete your messages. Most quality mail clients have options to leave messages on the server but delete them after a set number of days have passed. This option is extremely helpful when using many different mail clients to access the same mailbox.
Subject: 6.3) Wouldn't IMAP be very well-suited to this type of scenario?
Yes, IMAP is the perfect solution to the problem of synchronizing multiple different internet client applications. IMAP supports persistent mail storage in folders on the server side so that all mail clients, regardless of location, have a synchronized impression of what the user's current mail situation is like. MailMan does not currently support IMAP because it is not nearly as widely accepted as POP3 as a mail server protocol, and because there are a fixed number of hours in a developer's day. We sincerely hope that IMAP becomes more prevalent and demand for an IMAP version of MailMan increases, and we hope that the existing versions of MailMan will be successful enough to support the development of an IMAP version. If you would personally like to see an IMAP version of MailMan with full server-side folder support, drop us a line email@example.com and let us know that you are out there. If the demand is high enough we will naturally be compelled to develop a product.
Subject 6.4) When I try to send a message, I get: "Error 550: Relay (permission) denied.", what's up?
Most well configured SMTP servers will not allow a user from outside of their own local domain to send a message to users that are also outside of that domain. You can send a message in from outside, or out from inside, but you can't send a message to your buddy at IBM through the MindSpring SMTP servers if you are, say, at AOL. This is to prevent spammers from abusing SMTP servers. This will happen if you are using a MailMan installation at a different location than your SMTP server. The easiest way to solve this problem would be to configure MailMan to use an SMTP server that will grant permission to the HTTP server machine that MailMan is installed on to send messages. You can also provide a default name for a server that is known to allow messages from the HTTP server machine.
Subject: 7.1) Innards
This section describes the inner working of MailMan for installation administrators that want to customize their installations.
This section is still incomplete, sorry, check back after the MailMan public beta is over for a more current copy of this document with more useful information for this section.
Subject: 7.2) How do I customize MailMan to blend into my site and provide a branded interface to my users?
All of MailMan's output is defined by a collection of HTML templates. The templates are the ".htm" files that begin with "t_" in your distribution. We have provided a sample look and feel for MailMan that you are welcome to use for as long as you like. When you begin the customization process, simply open the templates in any HTML editor and make your modifications. Remember that the behavior of MailMan is dictated by hidden fields contained within the HTML templates, so make sure that you go slowly and check your results often, as it may be possible to 'break' your installation by accidentally deleting or modifying important keywords. We hope to provide more detailed information on what MailMan's keywords are and what they mean in this document at a later date.
Subject: 7.3) Is it possible to ‘rig’ a MailMan installation with a default POP3 or SMTP server address so that the user doesn’t have to enter them?
Yes. The POP3 server used is referred to in the HTML templates by the substitution keyword "SERVER". Hunt down everywhere that MailMan allows the user to supply this value through a form field. The only place where this should happen is in the template "t_login.htm". Find this
<input type="text" name="SERVER" size="30">
And replace it with:
<input type="text" name="SERVER" size="30" value="popserver.mydomain.com">
The box will now be filled in by default for the user when they log on, but experienced users will still be able to aim MailMan at specific servers.
The SMTP server used by MailMan is specified by the keyword "OUTGOING". Change the form fields that set the "OUTGOING" keyword in both "t_f_messageform.htm" and "t_nf_messageform.htm" in order to rig the outgoing SMTP server to something specific.
Subject: 7.4) Is it possible to ‘rig’ a MailMan installation with a default POP3 or SMTP server address so that the user can’t modify them even if they want to?
Yes. Find the locations of the servers as described above, and remove the entire "<input>" field from your templates entirely. The incoming server will need to be removed from "t_login.htm", and if you want to rig your SMTP server also then you would need to remove the outgoing server specification in both "t_f_messageform.htm" and "t_nf_messageform.htm". Finally, set the configuration variables "$strIncomingServer" and "$strOutgoingServer" in the MailMan script itself, as illustrated in the comments. Those variables are set toward the top of the script. If you set these values, then even if a hacker attempts to spoof a login page to redirect MailMan to a different server, it will always use the servers that you specify.
Copyright © Endymion Corporation, 1998